A. An Adverbial Modifier of time

Ex. 23. Replace adverbial clauses of time by gerundial phrases.

1. When he arrived at the airport, he went to the left-luggage office first thing. 2. When he was looking through the documents he came across a very interesting photograph. 3. After he had packed all the things he phoned for a taxi. 4. She hesitated before she entered the room. 5. When I was passing their house, I noticed that all the windows were dark. 6. After they settled down they started enjoying the place. 7. When I learned the results of the competition I rushed to the telephone-booth. 8. When he reached the village, he slowed down. 9. Before she rose from table she made me a sign to follow her. 10. When she left school, she got a job at the post-office.

B. An Adverbial Modifier of Manner or Attending Circmnstcnces

Ex. 24. Answer the following questions using gerundial phrases accord­ing to the model.

M о d e 1 : (a) How did he manage to calm her? (to promise to return soon). He managed to calm her by promising to return soon.

(b) How did they listen to her? (not to interrupt) They listened to her without interrupting.

1. How did you learn to speak the language so well? (to speak) 2. How did the committee accept the terms? (not to argue) 3. How did the teacher find the way to the child's heart? (to treat kindly) 4. How did he leave? (not to say good-bye) 5. How did she learn to play the piano so well? (to practise a lot) 6. How did he tell you about the accident? (not to go into details) 7. How did they manage to get such excellent results? (to use a new method) 8. How did the delegate manage to get there in time? (to take a plane)

Ex. 25. Supply the missing prepositions to suit the syntactic junction of the gerund.

1. I stopped, ... opening the door. 2. This time he felt no surprise ... meeting his friend. 3. ... washing up she settled down in a comfort­able armchair before TV. 4. As the visitor looked through the open doorway, ... passing, he stopped short. 5. What did she mean ... being busy? 6. He tore the note into pieces ... reading it. 7. The Gadfly couldn't run the risk ... being seen. 8. I insist ... remaining here. 9. Outside it kept ... raining. 10. The child nodded his head ... re­plying. 11.1 kept her ... falling down. 12. He went ... saying the things that meant nothing at all, but which were, somehow, better than silence. 13. ... washing up she broke a cup.

Ex. 26. Translate the following sentences using the gerund in the func­tion of an adverbial modifier.

1. Он включил меня в список экскурсантов без лишних разгово­ров. 2. Она уговорила меня ехать, сказав, что она присоединится ко мне через неделю. 3. Тем, что ты будешь надоедать ему, ты толь­ко рассердишь его еще больше. 4. Она уладила этот вопрос, не под­нимая лишнего шума. 5. Проснувшись, я не сразу понял, где нахо­жусь. 6. Проходя мимо их дома, он решил зайти. 7. После окончания школы она стала работать секретарем. 8. Не вдаваясь в подробности, он сразу перешел к существу дела. 9. Упаковывая вещи, он вдруг вспомнил, что совершенно машинально (не думая) вместе с докумен­тами упаковал и билет. 10. Мы чувствовали себя бодро, несмотря на то, что были очень голодные. 11. Перед тем как лечь спать, он решил написать письмо домой.

II. The Forms of the Gerund

Ex. 27. Study the forms of the gerund.

form active passive
non-perfect The American lady lay without sleeping. My watch needs repairing.* He had a feeling of being watched.
perfect The American lady looked wholesome in spite of not having slept.** I've never heard of the house having been paint­ed*** once since it was built.

Ex. 28. Use the correct form of the gerund.

1. I think I'll have a chance of (to introduce) you to my friends. 2. I've just had the pleasure of (to introduce) to your sister. 3. Every­body was surprised at her (to leave) so soon. 4. I am tired of (to treat) like a child. 5. You've changed so much that he might be excused for not (to recognize) you. 6. She had to leave the house without (to see) by anybody. 7. I remember (to be) on friendly terms with him. 8. This matter wants (to clear up). 9. She was dancing wonderfully. I couldn't help (to impress). 10. Boys always enjoy (to swim). 11. The children were annoyed at (to tell) to leave. 12. She looked disappointed. We suspected him of (to tell) her the sad news.

Ex. 29. Translate the following sentences using gerundial phrases.

1. Прежде чем заполнять анкету, ознакомьтесь с ней. 2. Я пом­ню, как а) я был огорчен его неудачей; б) он был огорчен моей не­удачей. 3. Вы не возражаете, если я присоединюсь к вашей компа­нии? 4. Перестань надоедать ей глупыми вопросами. 5. Мы сократили путь, переплыв' реку. 6. Увидев вдали автобус, я бросился бежать к остановке. 7. Прежде чем давать окончательный ответ, хорошенько подумай. 8. Товарищи внимательно слушали и не прерывали ее. 9. Овод рисковал быть узнанным. 10. Он разорвал письмо, не читая его. 11. Он хорошо разгадывает кроссворды. 12. Мой любимый спорт плавание. 13. Я боюсь провалиться на экзамене. 14. Ребенок боялся, что его оставят одного дома. 15. Она просто не может не опаздывать. 16. Этот факт стоит запомнить. 17. Она рассказывала мне об этом, не глядя мне в глаза. 18. Он далеко не простой человек, и с ним труд­но договориться. 19. Нет смысла обсуждать этот вопрос в его от­сутствии.


Ex. 30. Paraphrase the following sentences using "to forget" or "to remember" followed by either an infinitive or a gerund; mind the explanation given in the model.

M o d e l: He forgot to post the letter (He didn't post it. He forgot.)

He forgot mentioning the fact to her (He mentioned the fact to her and forgot about it.)

I remembered to post the letter (I didn't forget to post it.)

I remember posting the letter (I remember that I posted it.)

1. Do you remember you beat him at chess once? 2. Please, remember that you must ring me up on Saturday. 3. I didn't return the book I had borrowed from him, I quite forgot. 4. She forgot that she had given him her telephone number and was surprised to hear his voice on the phone. 5. She quite forgot that she had asked you to book the tickets. 6. She said that she remembered that she had had a talk with him on the subject. 7. I remember I enjoyed this film. 8. Don't forget that you must write a letter. 9. Did she remember that she was to get in touch with him? 10. She forgot that she had postponed the appointment.

Ex. 31. Fill in the blanks with "not" or "without "* thus using either Participle 1 or gerund.

1. ... knowing the answer, she continued to puzzle over the problem. 2. He looked at me ... recognizing me. 3. ... recognizing me she passed by. 4. He received the news calmly ... making a fuss about it. 5. I kept silent ... wishing to attract attention. 6. ... having noticed the mistake he could not understand why they were laughing at him. 7. She depart­ed ... once turning her head. 8. She felt lonely ... having any friends there. 9. He left the house ... waking anyone. 10. I hung up the phone ... waiting for her answer.

Ex. 32. Translate the following sentences using the gerund, the infin­itive or Participle I according to the sense.

1. Ему стыдно, что он вышел из себя. 2. Ему было стыдно при­знаться (сказать), что он не сдал экзамен по английскому языку. 3. Я боюсь, что мне зададут этот вопрос. 4. Я боюсь сидеть на сквоз­няке. 5. Я помню, что ему предлагали эту работу. 6. Я забыл пред­ложить ему чашку чая. 7. Он не забыл навести справки об условиях приема в институт. 8. Она заявила, что уже включила его в список. 9. Они остановились, чтобы перекусить. 10. Они перестали спорить. Они поняли, что это потеря времени. 11. Не желая ссориться с ним, она переменила тему разговора. 12. Они могли спорить, не ссорясь. 13. Ножницы используются для стрижки волос, разрезания бумаги, ткани и т.п. 14. Я воспользовалась ножом, чтобы разрезать книгу.

Ex. 33. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of a verbal (gerund, participle or infinitive).

Dora got into the train. It was now very full indeed and people were sitting four a side. Before ... (to sit down) she inspected herself quickly in the mirror. She looked good in spite of ... (not to sleep). She turned towards her seat. A large elderly lady moved a little ... (to make room). (It was a devilish hot day). She thought that she was lucky ... (to have a seat) and with a certain satisfaction watched the corridor ... (to fill) with people who had no seats.

Another elderly lady, ... (to make one's way) through the crowd reached the door of Dora's carriage and addressed her neighbour. "Ah, there you are, dear, I thought you were nearer the front." They looked at each other rather sadly. The ... (to stand) lady had her feet ... (to catch) in the luggage. They began a conversation about how they had never seen the train so full.

Dora stopped ... (to listen), ... (to strike) by a terrible thought. She ought to give up her seat. She refused to believe the thought but it came back. There was no doubt about it. The elderly lady who was stand­ing looked very weak indeed, and it was only proper that Dora, who was young and healthy, should give her seat to the lady who could then sit next to her friend. Dora felt the blood ... (to rush) to her face. She sat still ... (to think over) the matter. There was no point in ... (to be hasty). It was possible of course that while clearly ... (to understand) that she ought to give up her seat she might nevertheless simply not do so out of pure selfishness. On the other side of the ... (to stand) lady a man was sitting. He was reading his newspaper and didn't seem ... (to think) about his duty. There was another aspect to the matter. She had taken the trouble of ... (to arrive) early, and surely ought ... (to reward) for this. Though perhaps the two ladies had arrived as early as they could? There was no ... (to know). But in any case there was an elementary justice in the first comers ... (to have) their seats. She thought of her state of mind as neurotic. She decided not to give up her seat.

She got up and said to the lady "Do sit down here, please. I'm not going far, and I'd much rather ... (to stand)."

"How very kind of you!" said the lady. "Now I can sit next to my friend. I have a seat of my own further down, you know. Perhaps we can just exchange seats? Do let me ... (to help) you to move your lug­gage." The train began ... (to move).

On ... (to reach) the other carriage Dora at once saw an empty cor­ner seat by the window. The elderly lady departed and Dora settled down.

(after "The Bell" by Iris Murdoch)

Ex. 34. Test Translation.

1. По случаю окончания института мы организовали вечер. 2. Я мало знаю его. Мы встречаемся от случая к случаю, и разговор у нас обычно бывает только об учебе. 3. На мой взгляд это был не по­вод для шуток. 4. После большого и шумного города жизнь в деревне показалась им скучной и однообразной. 5. Если у вас плоскостопие, то вам лучше бы сделать туфли на заказ. 6. Невзирая на все доводы, он наотрез отказался принять наши условия. 7. Чем был вызван его поспешный отъезд? — Трудно сказать. 8. Еще до сих пор не назначен день отъезда. А ведь нам надо подумать о билетах. 9. Не­смотря на то, что результаты работы были хорошими по сравнению с прошлогодними, главный инженер сказал, что надо добиться того, чтобы они были еще лучше. 10. Вам стоит починить холодильник. Он вполне еще может послужить. Ремонт обойдется недорого. 11. Из него определенно вышел бы хороший спортсмен, если бы он больше тренировался. 12. Я чувствую себя неловко в этом пальто. Оно мне велико. Мне надо было бы купить другое, на размер меньше. 13. Кни­ги были единственным утешением для него во время болезни. 14. Этим вопросом следует заняться отдельно. Он требует изучения. 15. Они знали, что все трудности уже были позади, и это была очень утеши­тельная мысль. 16. Ему, вероятно, потребуется немало времени, чтобы придти в себя после такого потрясения. 17. Просят, чтобы выступающие не отклонялись от темы, а говорили по существу. 18. Це­на за товар не включает упаковку. Плата за упаковку взимается отдельно.


Ex. 35. Retell in narrative form.

I went to Grand Central Station to see off my uncle's family. There the train came in a little before twelve. I helped my uncle take the things into the compartment. It seemed as if only a few minutes had passed, but it was time for me to get off the train. I kissed my little cousins good-bye and gave them each a box of chocolates. "I'll miss you, Frankie," Irene, the older one, said. "I'll miss you too," I said. I turned to my uncle and held out my hand. We shook. "Good-bye, uncle. Good luck."

He smiled. "So long, Frankie. Be a good boy. It won't be long be­fore we are back again."

My aunt was next. She put her arms around me and kissed me. She was crying. "I wish you were coming with us, Frankie," she said.

"I do, too," I said. I could hardly keep from crying, I tried not to because I didn't want them to feel bad. "Thanks for everything."

I didn't know what to say. Just then the porter touched me on the shoulder. "You'd better be getting off, sir. We're going to start any minute."

I nodded to him. I stood up and looked at them. "Well," I said, "so long." I could feel the tears coming into my eyes in spite of all my efforts, so I turned and got off the train.

I heard their good-bye in my ears as I walked down the platform to where their window was and waved to them. The girls had their noses flat against the glass. My uncle was trying to say something, but I couldn't hear him through the closed window. The signal of departure was given and the train started.

Ex. 36. Answer the following questions using the active vocabulary of the text. Sum up your answers.

The Railway

1. How old is the railway? 2. When did the first railway lines appear in Europe? 3. What two cities did the first railway line connect in Rus­sia? 4. What are the main lines in our country now? 5. Why is it impor­tant that industrial centres should have more railway lines? 6. How are the tracks kept in order? Why is it necessary that they should be cleared of snow, etc? 7. What kinds of engines are used more often now: steam or diesel-oil-electric? 8. Why are lines electrified?

The Train

1. What does a modern train look like? 2. What kind of engines have: suburban, fast, goods trains*? 3. How many carriages are there in a suburban, fast, goods train? 4. In what way does a carriage of a local train differ from that of a fast train? 5. Why are there no compart­ments on a local train? 6. Why are there sleeping and restaurant cars only on long-distance trains? 7. How many passengers does a local train carriage (a long-distance train compartment) hold? 8. What does a goods train carry? 9. What is the speed of a suburban train, a fast train, a goods train? 10. What kind of service do you get on the train?

Travelling by Train

1. When do you book tickets beforehand? 2. When do people go to liie station to see off their friends? 3. When do you take a porter? 4. What's your idea of a comfortable journey? 5. Would you rather have a lower or an upper berth? 6. Would you rather travel facing the engine or with your back to the engine? 7. What has a news-stand to offer a traveller? Why do you buy magazines or newspapers when going on a journey?

A Local (Suburban) Train

1. What do you call the trains that connect the suburbs with the city? 2. What is the usual speed of a local train? 3. How often do local trains run? 4. Who uses local trains? 5. What do the carriages of a lo­cal train look like?

Booking Tickets

1. How do you book tickets if you intend to go on a journey? 2. How do you reserve tickets by telephone? 3. When are tickets delivered to your home? 4. What is a single, season, return ticket, half tick­et? 5. When are tickets booked on the day of the departure? 6. In what case do you return your ticket? 7. Why are travelling agencies to be found only in big cities?

A Railway Station

i. How does a big city railway station look different from a small station? 2. What are the duties of a porter? 3. What is a left-luggage department for? When do you use it? 4. What is a time-table for? 5. What is a waiting room for?

Ex. 37. Read the following, answer the questions using the vocabulary of the lesson. Give a name to the story and retell it.

A famous actor often had to travel by train. Of course, a lot of his fellow-passengers used to recognize him on his journeyes, and some them Tried to get into conversation with him, but lie was usually feeling tired after acting until late the night before, so he did not talk to them.

One day he had just got into the train with .ill hi.s luggage, when a young man came and sat down in the seat opposite him. The young man took out a book and began to read it, while the actor tried to get some sleep in his corner of the compartment.

When he opened his eyes, he found that the young man was looking at him wide-eyed and open-mouthed, his book forgotten. The actor shut his eyes and tried to go to sleep again, but every time he opened them he would see the young man staring at him. At last he gave up the attempt to sleep, took out a newspaper, put it up in front of him and began to read.

After a few moments the young man cleared his throat and spoke, 'I beg your pardon, sir,' he said, 'but haven't I seen you somewhere before?'

The actor did not answer. He did not even put his newspaper down. The young man said nothing more for several minutes, but then he tried again: 'I beg your pardon, sir,' he said, 'but are you going to San Fran­cisco?'

The actor put his paper down this time, looked at the young man coldly without saying a word, and then put the paper up in front of him again.

This time there was an even longer pause before the young man spoke again. Then tie said in a la^t attempt to start a conversation with the great man, 'I am George P. Anderson of Wilmington, Vermont.'

This time the actor put his paper down and spoke. 'So am I,' he said.

That was the end of the conversation.


1. Did the actor make regular or occasional trips by train? 2. Why was he often recognized by his fellow-passengers? 3. Why would he usually be annoyed by their attempts to enter into conversation with him? 4. Why didn't he care to talk to them? 5. What happened on that particular occasion? 6. What did the young man realize on giving his fellow-passenger a closer look? 7. Did the actor give any sign to make the young man believe that he wanted to talk to him? 8. Any person would have felt extremely uncomfortable being stared at, wouldn't he? 9. Why did the actor's obvious unwillingness to talk make no im­pression on the young man? 10. Why did the young man introduce him­self? 11. For what purpose, do you think, was the young man trying to-make conversation with the great actor? 12, Was the young man put off in any way by the actor's flat refusal to talk? 13. Do you believe that the actor's answer cured the young man of his annoying habit?

Ex. 38. Read the following, answer the questions and retell the passage in English.


Знаменитый трагик нигер Олдридж в 1860 году объехал всю Евро­пу. Ему везде сопутствовал успех.

Находясь уже в Северной Америке, он получил приглашение из города Мобилэ, находящегося в южных штатах. Несмотря на то, что этот город был одним из центров расизма, Олдридж все же принял приглашение.

На третий день своего пребывания в Мобилэ, он решил повидать­ся со своим приятелем, жившим в Монтгомери, и взял туда билет первого класса. Кассир на вокзале, узнав знаменитого актера, конеч­но, не подумал сказать ему то, что обыкновенно говорил всем черно­кожим: «Ваше место в вагоне для негров».

Артист вошел в пустой вагон, удобно уселся и погрузился в чте­ние газеты, скрывавшей его лицо. Вагон постепенно наполнялся пас­сажирами. Раздался свисток, и поезд двинулся.

Через некоторое время Олдридж опустил газету. Пассажир, си­девший напротив, вскочил и потребовал, чтобы кондуктор вывел из вагона негра, сказав, что если он этого не сделает, то потеряет ра­боту, т.к. он Франциск Парри — член правления этой дороги.

Вскоре поезд остановился у маленькой сіанции.

—Сэр, вы видите, я должен вас просить... —сказал кондуктор. Так как артист отказался наотрез выйти, то пришлось вывести его из вагона.

Артист стоял на платформе, тяжело дыша. Поезд ушел. К вечеру Олдридж вернулся в Мобилэ, Он был так потрясен происшедшим, что решил немедленно покинуть южные штаты и отправился в театр переговорить с директором. Увидев Олдриджа, директор бросился к нему с радостным криком;

— Это вы, Олдридж? Вы живы? Вы ведь сегодня уехали утром в Монтгомери?

— Да, но одно происшествие, о котором я вам сейчас расскажу, вынудило меня покинуть поезд.

— Так благодарите это происшествие за то, что вы живы. Поезд, в котором вы ехали, потерпел крушение около Монтгомери. Среди пассажиров много убитых. Прочтите в вечерней газете.

Олдридж схватил газету. В списках погибших он прочел имена Франциска Парри и знаменитого трагика Олдриджа...


1. What was Aldridge? 2. When did he tour Europe? 3. How great was his success in Europe? 4. What invitation did he receive one day? 5. Where did it come from? 6. Why did he accept the invitation in spite of the fact that Mobile, a town in one of the southern states, was a cen­tre of racism? 7. What did he decide to do on the third day of his stay in the town? 8. Where did his friend live? 9. How did he intend to trav­el? 10. Why did the booking-dark make no mention of the "Jim Crow" car? 11. What did Aldridge do on taking his seat in the train? 12. Why didn't his fellow-passengers notice at first that they were travelling in the same car with a Negro? 13. What happened when Aldridge put down his paper? 14. Why did the passenger sitting opposite Aldridge demand that the actor should be immediately thrown out of the car? 15. Why couldn't the porter disobey an order coming from Francisco Parry, a member of the Railroad Board? 16. What happened when the train stopped at a small station? 17. Why did Aldridge refuse flatly to leave the car? 18. What feelings rose in him? 19. How was Aldridge removed from the car? 20. Aldridge was badly shaken by what had hap­pened, wasn't he? 21. Why was it impossible for him to remain in the South after the incident? 22. Why was the director filled with joy to see Aldridge back? 23. What occurred as the train was approaching Montgomery? 24. What did Aldridge read in the evening paper?

Ex. 39. Read and retell the text.


After John O’Нага.

Laura was the first person to take a seat in the Pullman. It was always that way with Laura. Whether for a train, a dentist appoint­ment, the theatre, a dinner-party, Laura was always punctual. In her home town, her friends would look out of their windows, and seeing Laura on her way to a luncheon or other meeting, they would say, "We have plenty of time. Laura's just leaving." Her punctuality meant that she often had to wait for people. In fact, some time ago, she had been kept waiting a very long time. And now here was the man who had made her wait, taking his seat at the other end of the car.

After ten years, she still knew him before she saw his face. She was annoyed with herself because the sight of him made her realize that she still cared. Just in time she pretended to shade her eyes with her hand as he turned around before sitting down.

The train started. Frank was deep in his paper and a dozen Pull­man chairs away from him, Laura was left with her memory of an af­ternoon a decade ago, an afternoon when she had waited, and waited alone. He had arranged to meet her at Luigi's. He had chosen the place with great care, it was a place where no one knew her. "I'll telephone them to expect you, and you go straight through the bar to the last booth. You won't know anybody, but just in case."

When she went into the place, the owner seemed to recognize her. "Yes, lady, you are meeting Mr. Hillman. Right this way, please." He led her to the booth, took her order for the first drink. She had left her bags in the front of the restaurant, and there was not the slight­est doubt in her mind that the owner knew what was going on. He was very polite, very attentive as though every afternoon at four, he greeted young women who were walking out on their husbands because they had fallen madly in love with someone else.

There was admiration but no disrespect in his eyes as he brought her the first drink. The admiration gave way to pity after she had wait­ed two hours and had taken her sixth drink. Then she went home. Frank had tried to get in touch with her, but all his attempts were unsuccess­ful because she had never replied.

"Would you like to have lunch with me in the dining car?" Frank was standing over her with his easy charming smile.

"Why, Frank," she said, pleased that she did not sound as fright­ened as she felt. "Why, yes, thanks." She got up and they went to the diner. They did not speak until they had ordered. She hoped that the years had changed her as little as they had him. He was still very hand­some.

"I'm very pleased," he said.

"Why? At what?"

"That you speak to me. For ten years I've wanted to tell you about that awful day. I know you think I should at least have telephoned. but you never gave me a chance to tell you what happened. Do you know what happened?"

"What happened, Frank?"

"I met with an accident on my way to Luigi's, I was run down by a taxi. When I woke up in the hospital it was too late to call you even if I could have got out of bed, which I didn't for nearly three months."

"Really?" she said.

"And of course there was no one I could ask to phone you. No one else knew."

All at once she saw a way to wipe out the humiliation of those ten years and that one afternoon. '-Frank, I've got to tell you something. 1 wasn't there." She looked at him and, she knew, convincingly.


"I never went to the place. I did come to New York. I was going to meet you, but at the last minute I was afraid."

"But, Laura," he said, "when I got out of the hospital, I asked Lui-gi. He said yes, he remembered a lady waiting for me."

"It wasn't I. I just couldn't do it. I couldn't walk out on Bob that way. Then when I went home I was ashamed for being such a coward. That's why I never returned your calls. I was too cowardly."

"You weren't there." He said in a flat voice. "I can't believe it. I can't believe it."

"It worked out better this way," she said. She was heartless, cruel, but she got some comfort out of what she had said.

"Well, I suppose so," he said. He was taking it very well. He couldn't have her see what a hard blow it was for him. "Punctual Laura, on the one occasion when you really should have been on time, you didn't turn up at all."

"Well, better never than late, as they say," she said sweetly.

Ex. 40. Use the following words and phrases in situations.

A Trip

to intend to go on a trip some place; to set a day for the departure; to choose to travel by railway; to make inquiries about smth by phone; to book a return ticket in a sleeping car; to start packing one's luggage; an eventful day; to fuss about smth; to turn one's flat upside down; at smb's suggestion; to take smth along; to be on the safe side; finally; to set out; to take a taxi; to arrive at the station safe; to hire a porter; to pile one's luggage on a truck; to have one's luggage put in a luggage van; to catch sight of smb; to come to seesmboff; towishsmb a comfort­able journey; to be in high spirits; a signal of departure; to pull out of the station; to wave good-bye to smb; to move slowly; to pick up speed; to be out of sight; to settle down to enjoy smth

At a Railway Station

an impressive building outside; to be equally impressive inside a large main hall; on one side; a booking office; news-stands; an informa­tion bureau (inquiry office); on the opposite side; a left-luggage office; a restaurant; waiting rooms; all kinds of signs and advertisements; to help smb in every possible way; to include; time-table boards; to go outside; departure and arrival platforms; to be covered with roofs; porters with trucks; to rush in all directions; judging by; the atmos­phere and spirit; a picture of a busy life

Travelling Companions

A. to go on a holiday; to go by train; to have a seat facing the en­gine; to address oneself to smb; to make a polite remark on the weather; to receive only a nod in return; to suspect; to be a little deaf; to raise one's voice; to be eyed with suspicion; to feel uncomfortable; to have no idea; to mean; after all; to have the best of intentions; not to no­tice; to approach a big station; to see smb get down his luggage; to de­part in a hurry; to remain alone.

B. on one occasion; to travel on business; to be charged with an important mission; lost in thought; to be directed to (about one's thoughts); to be interrupted; to have the seat opposite; to remark on the weather; to be obvious; to start a conversation; to have no intentions; to keep up the conversation; to nod politely in reply; in spite of; not to be put off; to inquire about smth; to mumble smth back; a sign of displeasure; to get annoyed with smb; luckily; to come to an end

A Careless Driver

heavy traffic; to cross the road; to take care not to get run down; to hear a car braking; at full speed; another second and...; to be the driver's fault; to break the speed-limit; to feel more dead than alive; to show presence of mind; to get over the shock; to calm down

A Fault-finder

to have occasional quarrels; to find fault with smb; to have unrea­sonable demands; besides; to have a quick temper; to make things still worse; to be deaf to reason; to suffer greatly; to lose one's patience; after all; to show common sense; to make one's intentions clear to smb; judging by; to realize; to apologize to smb for smth

Ex. 41. Tell the story of the picture.

It's these new divorce laws—you get half each!

Ex.42. Subjects for oral and written composition.

1. Retell the story as if you were: a) the American lady; b) the author; c) the author's wife; d) the American lady's daughter.

2. Give a character-sketch of the American lady.

3. Say whether you believe the girl would ever get over her love for the young Swiss.

4. Say whether you think the canary would comfort the girl.

5. Explain the title of the story.

6. Tell a story of true love that wins in spite of all difficulties.

7. Tell a story to illustrate each of the following proverbs:" "Love is blind"; "He who hesitates is lost."

8. Express your point of view as to the say parents should have in such matters as marriage of their grown-up children.

9. Describe a journey by train.

10. Tell a story you have heard from a fellow-passenger during a trip.

11. Write your impressions of a journey by train in the form of travel notes.

Lesson Seven

Text: "Ball of Paper" by William Cooper1

Grammar: Modal Verbs must, can (could)

Ball of Paper

I was in my lab2 one afternoon. It must have been about half-past five, anyway, time to think about going home. There were a couple of observations I wanted to make before I went and it was a quarter of an hour before I could make the second check. During that quarter of an hour the wretched Johnson incident happened.

I decided to use the spare time filling up a form. This form was to do with Johnson's'promotion. Johnson had got to go up for an inter­view3 and he couldn't go till the form was completed. I'd given our Establishment Officer4 my word that I'd definitely do it before I went home this afternoon. I was Johnson's senior officer4 and whoever read that particular bit of paper was probably going to pay some attention to what I said on it. I hoped they would anyway.

Since Johnson came to me he'd done a good job as an Experimental Officer.4 I could put my hand on my heart and say that. But he was not everything he ought to be. He was inconsistent, inconsistent in a way I just somehow couldn't put up with.

I'm not consistent at all myself. I work in bursts and keep irregu­lar hours. But I can see the sense in that. I couldn't see the sense in the way Johnson went on. He wasn't consistent intellectually. He wasn't consistent in his attitude either. More than once I caught him going behind my back for something he wanted. In fact, he'd have done me one or two dirty tricks if I hadn't found out and stopped him. But that's the personal side of it. What really bothered me was the way he was erratic in his ideas.

To be fair to the man, I've got to admit that he'd had a lot of expe­rience. He had some good ideas as well. I'd even go so far as to say one or two of them were really good, far beyond what you could expect from an E.O.4 He'd also had quite a few bad ones, in fact bad is hardly the word for them. They were blunders. On top of all he had an ungov­ernable temper.

It was a very difficult decision to make. Moving Johnson up from E.O. to S.S.O.4 was risky. A man as erratic as Johnson is a risk any­where. In our kind of work he's a menace. But I had to admit that as the years went by he was getting more sensible. He was having his good ideas just as often and he was making blunders less frequently. I was coming round to thinking the risk might be worth taking. These were the lines I was thinking along, and I should have gone on thinking along them if Johnson hadn't come into the room that evening just at the crit­ical moment.

I suppose you must have guessed that Johnson thought the reason he hadn't succeeded in getting promoted already was because I'd given him a bad write-up,5 that I was responsible for the delay. Mind you, it was a difficult thing to do, to get the kind of appointment he was aiming at. Johnson had it fixed in his head that a poor write-up from me would not permit our people to promote him. As usual he was exaggerating. I'd first reported impartially on his actual work, and then given my personal opinion of the risk of making him an S.S.O. After that it was up to them.

On the last two occasions the Commission had come down on my side of the line. Now I'd come to the conclusion that the line didn't quite stand where it did. The man was definitely taking himself in hand, both in his ideas and in his personal behaviour. I thought the risk was definitely less than it had been, and I was prepared to say so. And that, I thought, might mean that this time Johnson would get what he wanted.

1 picked up my pen. Now I'd got down to it, the job was not as dis­agreeable as it might have been.

I was just reading the form over before I put my name to it when the door flew open. It was Johnson. I could tell by the look in his eyes that he knew what I was doing.

I shall now have to describe the lab. It was what's called a hot lab.6 This means there are radio-active substances about the place that can do you serious harm if you expose yourself to too much radiation from them. You've probably seen pictures of people working in hot labs, handling things by remote control, wearing protective clothing and all the rest of it. The labs are air-conditioned, they don't have any win­dows and they are constantly being swept and polished.

What caught your eye when you came into my lab was an object called a coffin7 in the middle of the floor. A coffin is a large brick-shaped block of solid lead with a cavity on the top. Lead is one of the best materials for stopping radiation. At the bottom of the cavity lay a ura­nium slug — that's where the radiation was coming from. The slug was fresh from the reactor.

What goes on in an atomic pile is this. Bars of uranium, called slugs, are pushed along channels through the reactor, and while they're there fission of the uranium takes place, so that when they come out at the other end they've been partly transformed into plutonium and fission products. What I have to draw your attention to is that the longer the slug has been in the pile, the more active it's likely to be when it comes out.

I can't describe the experiments I was doing because they are se­cret. The only two things you need to know I actually can tell you. First, the slugs I was experimenting with had been kept in the reactor a long time. Second, the coffin I was using was one I had designed myself, and it gave very little protection. I didn't like that, naturally. But I couldn't do the experiments on the slug that I wanted to do unless I had that design of coffin. So there it was. When we weren't doing any experiments we covered the cavity over with lead bricks. When the bricks were off you had to keep way.

So there we were, Johnson and I facing each other.

Johnson's eyes were bulging. His specs2 were slipping off his nose.

"Oh, hello," I said. I put down my pen.

"Hello, Curtis."

He spoke in a menacing tone and what's more he dared to come and stand not far from my elbow. I was used to dealing with him in this mood. I said:

"You've just come in time, Johnson. The next observation is due at —" I don't remember now actually what time it was, but I told him then.

"O.K.," he said. "That leaves us eight minutes. I wanted to have a word with you about that, Curtis."

"About what?" I said.

"About that confidential report on me." There was no denying it.

"I'm not going to pretend it's not what you think it is, Johnson." I said. "It is."

He came still nearer. His eyes were now popping out of his head, not at me, but in an effort to read what I'd written.

"What I'd like to know," he said, "is whether you're going to wreck my chances again."

"Who said I wrecked your chances before?"

"Come off it,8 Curtis; you know you did. That's why I'm going to have it out with you now. I want to know where I stand."

"You seem to know more than I do."

"For once I don't."

I was pretty fed up9 with him.

"I'm going to tell you what I've written about you, and then you can judge for yourself. It'll be up to you then to decide whether I'm wrecking your chances or not. I've given a very fair account of what you've done so far. I've said I think there's a risk in putting you up to S.S.O. but"—I paused--"I'd be willing to take it."

"If that's what you've written, let me see it!"

I lost my temper with him. I don't lie. Nothing would make me lie. Not about that sort of thing, anyway.

"You're not going to see it."

"Then that proves my point!" He jumped towards me and seized the form.

"Give that back!" I jumped up.

To stop me getting it he crushed it into a ball between his hands.

"Give it back!" I pulled at his forearm and he pulled it away. The

ball flew out of his hands, through the air, across the floor till it came to the coffin.

"Come back!"

He was already picking the ball of paper up, opening it, READING IT WHERE HE WAS STANDING.

I'd got the telephone receiver off and was asking for Health Phys­ics10 before I knew what I was doing. I was telling Health Physics what he'd done. I looked at him and put the telephone down.

"They're going to be here for you in about three minutes!"

He said nothing and neither did I. When he did speak his eyes were fixed on my face.

"Do you think I've got it?"

I said: "I think you've had something." I don't know why, but I suddenly thought about his wife and kids.

I noticed him touching the film-holder on the lapel, as if he was making sure it was there. It was the sort of badge we all wear. It con­tains a piece of photographic film between two thin sheets of lead with windows in the front one. When the Health Physics people develop the film they can tell the amount of radiation that has fallen on it. I suppose the first thing they'd do when they took him away now was develop his film. He must have been thinking the same thing.

Johnson couldn't have had a fatal dose,11 I was convinced of that:

If he'd had the sort of dose I thought he'd probably get away with it. Then another thought occurred to me — it was a hundred to one the medicals would say he wasn't to come near any more radiation for quite a time. And it was beyond my power to do anything either. He had put himself out of just the job he wanted and just the job he was most use­ful for.


1. William Cooper(1910): a modern English writer, critic and expert on atomic energy. His main works are: "Scenes from Provincial Life" (1950); "Scenes of Married Life" (1961); "The Novel and Anti-novel" (1961).

2. lab (coll.): an abbreviated form of "laboratory". Note also:

specs: spectacles; doc: doctor; bike: bicycle.

3. interview: a meeting to test the suitability of a candidate for a post.

4. Experimental Officer, Senior Scientific Officer; Establishment Officer: terms loosely corresponding to the Russian: младший, стар­ший научный сотрудник; работник отдела кадров

5. write-up: (зд.) характеристика

6. a hot lab: лаборатория для исследования радиоактивных веществ

7. coffin: (зд.) контейнер, хранилище

8. Come off it! (coll.): Stop pretending!

9. fed up: (sl.). sick and tired (of)

10. Health Physics study the ill-effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their protection from them дозиметристы

11. the fatal dose for man is put down at 400 r. (r.=roentgen=-Rtgn.) Roentgen W.K. (1845—1923) German physicist, discoverer of X-rays.


observe vt 1. наблюдать, следить (за) to observe planets (changes, smb's behaviour, etc.) 2. соблюдать, придерживаться to observe a rule (law, order, etc.); observation n наблюдение Phr. make an obser­vation (of smth) делать, проводить наблюдение; (un/in)observant a (не)наблюдательный, (не)внимательный

check vt 1. проверять, контролировать to check facts (figures. money, luggage, speed, etc.) 2. останавливать, сдерживать, препят­ствовать to check one's anger (progress, inflation, etc.); check (-up) n проверка, контроль

spare а свободный, лишний, запасной spare time (money, etc.); a spare ticket (notebook, room, etc.); spare parts запасные части; spare vt уделять, располагать (временем и т.п.) I have no time to spare to­day. Can you spare me a minute (a cigarette, a pen, etc.)?

establish vt устанавливать (истину, факты и т.п.); основывать, создавать (государство, научный центр и т.п.) to establish the truth (a fact, etc.; a theory, a law, a rule, a custom, contacts, etc.; a state, a new scientific centre, etc.) The law of gravity was established by the English scientist Newton.

attitude n позиция, отношение What's your attitude to (towards) the question? Phr. take an attitude занять позицию (в отношении во­проса и т.п.)

bother vt/vi надоедать; беспокоить(ся), волновать(ся) Don't both­er me with your questions. You needn't bother about such little things. Don't bother to do it now, it can wait. He even did not bother to an­swer my question, bother n беспокойство, хлопоты We had much bother driving through the fog. The boy seemed to be quite a bother to his parents.

fair а честный, справедливый a fair demand (attitude, treatment, arrangement, price, compensation, etc.); to be fair to smb; to be fair in one's judgement (attitude, etc.); unfair а нечестный, несправедли­вый

admit vt 1. признавать, сознавать (ошибку, вину и т.п.) Не admit­ted his mistake (having made a mistake; that he had made a mistake). 2. впускать (в помещение) Visitors are not admitted into the office after working hours. 3. принимать (в институт, клуб и т.п.) Не was admitted to the pilot school after medical examination, admission n 1. признание (вины и т.п.) Не refused to make an admission of his fault. 2. вход, допуск, доступ Admission is free (by tickets, etc.) 3. при­ем (в учебное заведение и т.п.) Admission to the institute is by exami­nation.

beyond prep по ту сторону, за; вне, сверх, выше The village is beyond the forest, beyond doubt (suspicion, recognition, reason, etc.) What are you saying is beyond me (my understanding).

experience n 1. опыт (жизненный, трудовой) Не has much (little, no, etc.) experience in life (teaching, etc.). Phr. by/from experience по опыту 2. переживание; ощущение to have a pleasant (interesting, unusual, etc.) experience; He told us about his experiences in the Arc­tic. experience vt ощущать, испытывать to experience joy (pain, dis­appointment, etc.) (in/un)experienced а (не)опытный an experienced doctor (teacher, driver, etc.)

guess vt/vi 1. угадать, отгадать to guess an answer (smb's age, smb's intentions, etc.); You guessed right (wrong). I could not guess what he meant. 2. (Am. coll.) полагать, считать I guess you are right.

responsible а ответственный a responsible post (position, decision, etc.); to be responsible for smth/smb to smb. responsibility n ответст­венность

delay vt задерживать The train was delayed by the heavy snowfall. delay n задержка, промедление We must start without delay.

appoint vt 1. назначать, определять (на должность) Не was ap­pointed director of the automobile works. 2. назначать (время, встре­чу и т.п.) The meeting was appointed for five o'clock. They all came at the appointed time. appointment n 1. назначение; должность Не was highly pleased with his new appointment. 2. свидание, условлен­ная встреча (деловая) to have (make, keep, break, miss, etc.) an ap­pointment with smb

aim n 1. цель, намерение His aim in life is to be useful to people. Phr. reach one's aim достигать цели; aim vt стремиться (к чему-л);

нацеливаться (на что-л) Soviet foreign policy aims at promoting friend­ship among nations.

fix vt 1. укреплять, устанавливать; фиксировать Help me fix the shelf to the wall. The fact (event, day, etc.) was fixed in my mind. Phr. fix one's eyes (one's attention, one's mind) on smth/smb остановить взгляд (внимание) на чем-л/ком-л 2. назначать (цену и т.п.) to fix a price (a date, etc.) 3. (coll.) чинить, исправлять; приводить в поря­док to fix a watch (a machine, a TV set; one's hair, etc.)

opinion n мнение, взгляд to have a good (bad, etc.) opinion of/about smb/smth in my opinion he is right. What is your opinion on the matter? I am of the opinion that this matter should be dealt with without delay. Phr. public opinion общественное мнение

permit vt разрешать, позволять; давать возможность Smoking is not permitted here. The new model of the engine permits a speed of one hundred kilometres, permission n разрешение to ask (give, get, etc.) permission. He needed the professor's permission to make the experiment.

conclude vt/vi 1. заканчивать, завершать; делать вывод to con­clude a speech (a lecture, an experiment, etc.) As he did not come at the appointed time we concluded that he was ill. 2. заключать (договор и т.п.) to conclude a contract (an agreement, etc.); conclusion n 1. окон­чание, завершение; вывод Phr. in conclusion в заключение What did he say in conclusion? come to (arrive at, reach) a conclusion прийти к выводу, заключению; make (draw) a conclusion сделать вывод, заклю­чение 2. заключение (договора) The conclusion of the new agreement was of great importance to both countries.

expose vt 1. подвергать (опасности и т.п.) to expose oneself/smb to danger (unnecessary risks, difficulties, suspicion, criticism, etc.) 2. разоблачать (кого-л/что-л); to expose smb (smb's intentions, a plan, a secret, etc.);-He lived in fear of being exposed.

tell (told) vt (used generally with can) отличать, различать; узна­вать, определять и т.п. to tell one thing from the other; to tell the dif­ference between (the) colours, etc.; I could tell by his tone that he was annoyed.

handle vt обращаться с (кем-л/чем-л); управлять to handle a per­son (a child, a tape-recorder, a yacht, etc.) Handle the box with care, please.

constant a 1. постоянный, неизменный a constant visitor (noise, demand, complaint, habit, fear, etc.); to be constant in one's idea (prin­ciples, tastes, etc.); inconstant а непостоянный

mood n настроение; расположение духа to be in a good (cheer­ful, joyful, bad, nasty, etc.) mood; to be in a (the; no) mood for smth (doing smth) He was not in the mood for talking business that night.

due a 1. должный, надлежащий due respect (attention, etc.) They treated him with due respect. Phr. in due time в свое время, своевре­менно 2. ожидаемый The plane was due at the airport at six o'clock. to be due to do smth The meeting was due to start at five o'clock. Phr. due to=because of The delay in the arrival of the ship was due to the thick fog.

deny vt отрицать; отвергать; отказываться to deny one's words (signature, etc.) He flatly denied that he had said it (having said it). denial n отрицание, опровержение

pretend vt притворяться, делать вид, симулировать Не pretended to be asleep (ill, surprised, etc.); pretence n отговорка, притворство Don't believe him, that's all pretence.

dare vt (модальный глагол, употр. в вопросит, и отрицат. предложениях) сметь, осмелиться, отважиться Не dared not say a word against the arrangement. She did not dare to go there alone. How dare you say that?

account vt отчитываться; объяснять to account to smb for smth. His illness accounts for his absence, account n отчет; счет (денежный) They gave a detailed account of the work done. Do you have an account with a bank? Phr. take smth into account принимать во внимание (в расчет), учесть что-л You should take all these facts into account. on account of из-за, вследствие Не missed classes on account of his illness.

convince vt убеждать; доводить до сознания She was difficult to convince. We finally convinced him that he should give up smoking. (in)convincing а (не)убедительный a convincing fact (argument, tone, etc.); conviction n убеждение, убежденность

power n 1. сила, мощь; энергия water (electric, atomic, etc.) power I can't help you, it's beyond my power. 2. власть, могущество; полно­мочие Which party is in power in Great Britain now? He was charged with special powers. 3. держава, государство the Great Powers великие державы; powerful а мощный, могущественный, сильный a powerful person (position, argument, imagination, blow, etc.); powerless а бес­сильный He was powerless to do anything.


do with smb/smthиметь отношение к кому-л/чему-л, касаться кого-л/чего-л

do a good (poor, etc.) jobхорошо (плохо) справиться с работой

put up with smb/smth терпеть, мириться с кем-л/чем-л

work in burstsработать рывками

catch smb doing smth застать кого-л (на месте преступления)

come round to thinking склоняться к мысли

take oneself in hand взять себя в руки

all the rest of it и всё такое прочее

catch the/one's eye попасть в поле зрения, попасться на глаза

fresh from (school, the country, etc.) только что (со школьной скамьи, из деревни и т.п.)

draw smb's attention to smb/smth=call smb's attention to smb/smth

have a word with smb переговорить с кем-л (по делу)

have it (a question, a matter) out with smb выяснить (вопрос, дело) до конца с кем-л

for (this) once на этот раз, в виде исключения

judge (see) for oneself убедиться самому

be willing to do smth быть готовым сделать что-л охотно

make sure убедиться, удостовериться

get away with (it) сойти с рук, остаться безнаказанным, выйти сухим из воды

so far as настолько; поскольку

so farдо сих пор, пока

prove one's point доказать свою правоту


Ex. 1. Answer the following